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Most (ie, 80-100%) of patients with acute infectious mononucleosis have elevated liver enzymes, even though jaundice is not usually present. Alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and bilirubin levels peak 5-14 days after onset, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels peak at 1-3 weeks after onset.
Mononucleosis rarely leads to a serious condition called chronic EBV infection. In chronic EBV infection, you have long-lasting symptoms and a viral infection that lasts longer than usual after your original mononucleosis diagnosis.
Infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection sometimes causes acute hepatitis, which is usually self-limiting with mildly elevated transaminases, but rarely with jaundice.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a DNA virus associated with infectious mononucleosis (IM) in children and young adults. It may cause moderate and transitory increase of liver enzymes; however, in rare cases, severe liver injury and even fatal ALF may occur .
Infectious mononucleosis is a largely benign disease process that occurs secondary to infection with the Epstein-Barr virus. However, it can also present with more serious complications, including auto-immune hemolytic anemia and acute liver failure.
Enlarged spleen. Head and body aches. Liver involvement, such as mild liver damage that can cause temporary jaundice, a yellow discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes due to abnormally high levels of bilirubin (bile pigmentation) in the bloodstream.
Scientists have known for decades that EBV, which causes an infectious disease named mononucleosis or “kissing disease,” is also linked to several autoimmune disorders, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
They tend to come on gradually. If you get sick with mono, it will probably happen four to six weeks after you come in contact with EBV. These symptoms may last for four weeks or longer: Enlarged spleen or liver.
The syndrome of infectious mononucleosis is commonly seen with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. It may cause acute hepatitis, which is usually self-limiting and characterised by mildly elevated liver enzymes, but rarely jaundice.
Treatment. The treatment of EBV hepatitis is generally supportive since most cases will resolve on their own after the infection runs its course.
In these two, antibodies to this autoantigen persisted and increased after infectious mononucleosis, and autoimmune hepatitis developed within 4 months. In susceptible individuals, EBV is a trigger for autoimmune hepatitis.
EBV infection can affect a person’s blood and bone marrow. The virus can cause the body to produce an excessive number of white blood cells called lymphocytes (lymphocytosis). EBV can also weaken the immune system, making it more difficult for the body to fight infection.
Glandular fever complications Most people get better with no problems. But sometimes glandular fever may lead to other problems like: mild liver inflammation (hepatitis), which causes yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice) low levels of blood cells called platelets (thrombocytopenia)
Mononucleosis may cause enlargement of the spleen. In extreme cases, your spleen may rupture, causing sharp, sudden pain in the left side of your upper abdomen. If such pain occurs, seek medical attention immediately — you may need surgery.
Chronic Active Epstein-Barr virus is characterized by persistent inflammatory symptoms such as fever, lymphadenopathy, liver dysfunction, mononucleosis-like symptoms for more than 3 months, elevated EBV DNA PCR in peripheral blood, infiltration of tissues by EBV positive lymphocytes, and skin lesions hydroa …
- Rheumatoid arthritis. …
- Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus). …
- Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). …
- Multiple sclerosis (MS). …
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus. …
- Guillain-Barre syndrome. …
- Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. …
Statistical analyses revealed a significant association between mono in early life and MS risk. Specifically, people who had mono in childhood (age 10 or younger) were about twice as likely to develop MS later on, while those who had mono as adolescents (ages 11–19) were about three times as likely.
Infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) that causes mononucleosis can increase a person’s risk of developing any of seven major autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, new and possibly ground-breaking research indicates.
- Fatigue and tiredness. …
- Nausea (feeling sick). …
- Pale stools. …
- Yellow skin or eyes (jaundice). …
- Spider naevi (small spider-shaped arteries that appear in clusters on the skin). …
- Bruising easily. …
- Reddened palms (palmar erythema). …
- Dark urine.
- Skin and eyes that appear yellowish (jaundice)
- Abdominal pain and swelling.
- Swelling in the legs and ankles.
- Itchy skin.
- Dark urine color.
- Pale stool color.
- Chronic fatigue.
- Nausea or vomiting.
Most of the time, if you have a slightly enlarged liver, you won’t notice any symptoms. If it’s severely swollen, you may have: A feeling of fullness. Discomfort in your belly.
Other signs and symptoms which may appear include skin rash, muscle aches, congestion, and abdominal pain. Mono can cause temporary enlargement of the liver and spleen, and occasionally produce a transient liver inflammation called mono hepatitis.
No. A past history of mononucleosis does not disqualify a person as a blood donor. Blood for transfusion is not tested for the possibility of mononucleosis. When a person has mono (infectious mononucleosis) there are changes in the blood reflecting the infection.
Mononucleosis/EBV remains dormant in your body’s immune system cells for life, but your body’s immune system will remember it and protect you from getting it again. The infection is inactive, but it is possible to reactivate without symptoms and in turn, can be spread to others, though this is quite rare.
A small number of people with mononucleosis may never have a positive test. The highest number of antibodies occurs 2 to 5 weeks after mono begins. They may be present for up to 1 year. In rare cases, the test is positive even though you do not have mono.
When the EBV enters the body , it first infects the lining of the throat. Then, white blood cells called B lymphocytes can spread the infection to other parts of the body, including the liver and spleen.
Abnormal liver function tests (LFTs) — LFTs are abnormal in about 90% of people with glandular fever, with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) being elevated to 2–3 times the upper limit of normal.
An inflamed liver has become enlarged beyond the size of a normal organ of its type. It is typically a sign of a more serious health condition. Illnesses or diseases that lead to an inflamed liver could also produce other symptoms.