How do you assess the supraspinatus muscle? supraspinatus muscle function.
Which of the following correctly explains the difference between the rods and cones in the retina?
11th Cranial nerve The 11th (spinal accessory) cranial nerve is evaluated by testing the muscles it supplies: For the sternocleidomastoid, the patient is asked to turn the head against resistance supplied by the examiner’s hand while the examiner palpates the active muscle (opposite the turned head).
Inability to follow and object in direction of CN III (the quickest test is to observe upward gaze which is all CN III; the eye on the affected side does not look upward) Inability to open the eyelid. CN III dysfunction causes the eyelid on the affected side to become “droopy”. This is called ptsosis.
Function. Rotation of the head to the opposite side or obliquely rotate the head. It also flexes the neck. When acting together it flexes the neck and extends the head.
The abducens nerve functions to innervate the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle and partially innervate the contralateral medial rectus muscle (at the level of the nucleus – via the medial longitudinal fasciculus).
Introduction. The glossopharyngeal nerve is the 9th cranial nerve (CN IX). It is one of the four cranial nerves that has sensory, motor, and parasympathetic functions. It originates from the medulla oblongata and terminates in the pharynx.
The abducens nerve is examined in conjunction with the oculomotor and trochlear nerves by testing the movements of the eye. The patient is asked to follow a point with their eyes (commonly the tip of a pen) without moving their head.
Cranial Nerve 3 (Oculomotor):Extraocular muscle testing in “H-pattern” – CN III controls the medial rectus (adduction in to nose), superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique. It also controls the elevation of the eyelid, so check for evidence of ptosis.
A bright light will be used to assess the appearance of the optic nerve head, and evaluate the presence of glaucomatous structural damage. It is a quick and painless procedure. The optic nerve is examined at the slit lamp by using special lenses, usually with NO contact with the eye.
What is the SCM muscle? The sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle is located at the base of your skull on either side of your neck, behind your ears. On both sides of your neck, each muscle runs down the front of your neck and splits to attach to the top of your sternum and collarbone.
The sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM), which is responsible for the mechanical action in the majority of the head movements, is also considered an accessory muscle for respiration.
The sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and the anterior, middle and posterior scalene muscles are considered secondary breathing muscles. The SCM attaches to the sternum and clavicle, while the scalene group attach to the first and second rib. All assist in elevating the rib cage during inhalation.
Cranial Nerves 9 & 10 – Motor The motor division of CN 9 & 10 is tested by having the patient say “ah” or “kah”. The palate should rise symmetrically and there should be little nasal air escape. With unilateral weakness the uvula will deviate toward the normal side because that side of the palate is pulled up higher.
The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve (CN III). It allows movement of the eye muscles, constriction of the pupil, focusing the eyes and the position of the upper eyelid. Cranial nerve III works with other cranial nerves to control eye movements and support sensory functioning.
- Levator palpebrae superioris – raises the upper eyelid.
- Superior rectus muscle – rotates the eyeball backward, “looking up”
- Medial rectus muscle – adducts the eye, “looking towards your nose”
- Inferior rectus muscle – rotates the eyeball forwards, “looking down”
The hypoglossal nerve is mainly a somatic efferent (motor) nerve to innervate the tongue musculature. The nerve also contains some sympathetic postganglionic fibers from the cervical ganglia, which innervates tongue vessels and some small glands in the oral mucosa.
It’s also known as the abducens nerve. This condition causes problems with eye movement. The sixth cranial nerve sends signals to your lateral rectus muscle. This is a small muscle that attaches to the outer side of your eye. When this muscle contracts, your eye moves away from your nose.
The vagus nerve carries an extensive range of signals from digestive system and organs to the brain and vice versa. It is the tenth cranial nerve, extending from its origin in the brainstem through the neck and the thorax down to the abdomen.
Which of the following correctly explains the difference between the rods and cones in the retina? Cones interpret the color of light, whereas rods interpret the intensity of light.
The trochlear, abducens, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves are only motor nerves; the trigeminal nerve is both sensory and motor; the oculomotor nerve is both motor and parasympathetic; the facial glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves have sensory, motor, and parasympathetic components (Standring, 2008).
The hypoglossal nerve can be examined by asking a patient to protrude their tongue, move their tongue laterally, and place their tongue against their cheek to resist the opposing force of the examiner’s hand resting on the external cheek. Pathology to CN XII is a relatively uncommon event.
Its name (“trigeminal” = tri-, or three, and – geminus, or twin: thrice-twinned) derives from each of the two nerves (one on each side of the pons) having three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2), and the mandibular nerve (V3).
The glossopharyngeal nerve is the main center for swallowing, however, but all three play a role together (along with the facial, trigeminal, and spinal accessory). The olfactory nerve does NOT.
In higher vertebrates (reptiles, birds, mammals) there are 12 pairs of cranial nerves: olfactory (CN I), optic (CN II), oculomotor (CN III), trochlear (CN IV), trigeminal (CN V), abducent (or abducens; CN VI), facial (CN VII), vestibulocochlear (CN VIII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), vagus (CN X), accessory (CN XI), and …
Pachymetry. Pachymetry is a simple, painless test to measure the thickness of your cornea — the clear window at the front of the eye. A probe called a pachymeter is gently placed on the front of the eye (the cornea) to measure its thickness.
Perimetry is the systematic measurement of visual field function (the total area where objects can be seen in the peripheral vision while the eye is focused on a central point). The two most commonly used types of perimetry are Goldmann kinetic perimetry and threshold static automated perimetry.
The retina is a layer of tissue in the back of your eye that senses light and sends images to your brain. In the center of this nerve tissue is the macula. It provides the sharp, central vision needed for reading, driving and seeing fine detail. Retinal disorders affect this vital tissue.
The sternocleidomastoid muscle is one of the largest and most superficial cervical muscles. The primary actions of the muscle are rotation of the head to the opposite side and flexion of the neck. The sternocleidomastoid is innervated by the accessory nerve.
The muscle lies very superficially so that it is both easily visible and palpable. The carotid pulse may be felt in the middle third of the front edge. Under the sternocleidomastoid region runs a neurovascular bundle containing: Carotid sheath.
Attached to the bones of the skeletal system are about 700 named muscles that make up roughly half of a person’s body weight. Each of these muscles is a discrete organ constructed of skeletal muscle tissue, blood vessels, tendons, and nerves.
These accessory muscles of inspiration include the sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor and major, serratus anterior, latissimus dorsi, and serratus posterior superior muscles. Expiration, in contrast, is a passive process produced by elastic recoil of the thoracic cage.
The sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) , or musculus sternocleidomastoideus is a paired superficial muscle in the anterior portion of the neck responsible for flexing and rotating the head. It is a skeletal muscle because it is attached to the skeleton.
Use of accessory muscles Stand behind patient and place your hands behind the sternomastoid and feel the scalene muscles during quiet respiration. If the muscle contraction is palpable during quiet tidal breathing, the accessory muscles are in use. These muscles contract normally during an attempt at deep inspiration.
The most important muscle of inspiration is the diaphragm; however, the external intercostals assist with normal quiet breathing. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the space in the thoracic cavity and the lungs fill with air from the external environment.
Respiratory muscles The lungs have no skeletal muscles of their own. The work of breathing is done by the diaphragm, the muscles between the ribs (intercostal muscles), the muscles in the neck, and the abdominal muscles.
From a functional point of view, there are three groups of respiratory muscles: the diaphragm, the rib cage muscles and the abdominal muscles. Each group acts on the chest wall and its compartments, i.e. the lung-apposed rib cage, the diaphragm-apposed rib cage and the abdomen.
The glossopharyngeal nerve provides sensory supply to the palate. It can be tested with the gag reflex by touching the pharynx with a tongue depressor or by touching the arches of the pharynx.
- Lie on your back on the ground.
- Interlace your fingers and bring them behind your head- right at the base of the skull.
- Look with your eyes to the right until you sigh, swallow, or yawn, and then repeat on the other side.
- You may blink during the exercise.