Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are major nosocomial pathogens worldwide. Both are intrinsically resistant to many drugs and are able to become resistant to virtually any antimicrobial agent.
Bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter are ubiquitously distributed in nature. They are found in various types of soils and waters and are occasionally found in foodstocks. They are normal inhabitants of human skin and are capable of transitory colonization of the upper respiratory tract.
Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative bacillus that is aerobic, pleomorphic and non-motile. An opportunistic pathogen, A. baumannii has a high incidence among immunocompromised individuals, particularly those who have experienced a prolonged (> 90 d) hospital stay.
you can go with Macconkey agar for general culture. Mac Conkey agar would be a better choice ,This agar joined Antimicrobial for use as screening of Multi resistant strains has been used. According to CLSI, Muller-Hinton agar is the best medium for detection of antibiotic resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii and E.
Acinetobacter is spread by contact with a person or environment that has the bacteria. In healthcare facilities, the bacteria can spread from workers’ hands or contaminated surfaces or healthcare items.
It can be spread by direct contact and may be found on skin or in food, water, or soil. It may also be found in hospitals. Acinetobacter baumannii is highly contagious.
Acinetobacter can live on the skin and may survive in the environment for several days, which makes Acinetobacter baumannii prevention a delicate issue. Careful attention to infection control procedures, such as hand hygiene and environmental cleaning, can reduce the risk of transmission.
When infections are caused by antibiotic-susceptible Acinetobacter isolates, there may be several therapeutic options, including a broad-spectrum cephalosporin (ceftazidime or cefepime), a combination beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor (ie, one that includes sulbactam), or a carbapenem (eg, imipenem or meropenem).
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), Acinetobacter baumannii (CRA), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) are Gram-negative bacilli that most commonly occur among patients with significant healthcare exposures, co-morbid conditions, invasive devices, and those who have received extended courses of antibiotics.
The most important way to prevent the spread of CRE and other antibiotic-resistant infections is to practice good hand-washing. Wash your hands often using soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Check that anyone who is providing your care also washes his or her hands often.
Carbapenems (except ertapenem) have been considered the treatment of choice for pneumonia caused by MDR A. baumannii. In recent years, many A. baumannii isolates exhibit carbapenem resistance, which is strongly associated with prior use of carbapenems.
What the reader will gain: The antibiotics that are usually effective against A. baumannii infections include carbapenems, polymyxins E and B, sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, tigecycline and aminoglycosides. Carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, doripenem) are the mainstay of treatment for A.
Carbapenems are highly bactericidal against susceptible strains of Acinetobacter . The clinical cure rates with imipenem for ventilator-associated pneumonia due to Acinetobacter range from 57 to 83 percent in small series [54-56].
Acinetobacter isolates were tested for their abilities to oxidize glucose in Hugh and Leifson’s medium, cause browning of blood agar containing 0.22 M glucose, and grow on plain blood agar when they are incubated at 44°C.
The factors which were significantly associated with multidrug resistance include the recovery of Acinetobacter from multiple sites, mechanical ventilation, previous antibiotic use, and the presence of co-morbidity (especially neurologic impairment).
Acinetobacter baumannii complex has been shown to cause ventilator-associated pneumonia and bloodstream infections. Acinetobacter lwoffii is a known skin colonizer but has been found to cause bacteremia in hospitalized patients. Acinetobacter are coccobacilli and can resemble Neisseria species by Gram stain.
Acinetobacter is notorious, however, for variable morphology, differential uptake of Gram stain, and relative lack of reactivity on biochemical assays (Figure). The organism is typically rod-shaped during rapid growth but forms coccobacilli during stationary phase.
Until 2001, the infection control department of the Besançon university hospital (France) recommended isolation precautions for all patients colonized-infected by Acinetobacter baumannii (Ab) whatever the antibiotic susceptibility of the strain.
Curved, straight or bean-shaped: bacilli come in many variants and are widely spread. Acinetobacter baumannii is an aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium of the Moraxellaceae family. Acinetobacter baumannii triggers catheter-associated urinary tract infection and pneumonia.
The mean survival times of the various A. baumannii isolates tested are shown in Tables 1 and 2. The mean survival time for sporadic strains was 27.29 days (range, 21 to 32 days), while the mean survival time for outbreak strains was 26.55 days (range, 21 to 33 days).
The Acinetobacter superbug can cause diseases such as pneumonia and meningitis. Acinetobacter baumannii is a bacterium that can cause a range of diseases.
Acinetobacter baumanniiGenus:AcinetobacterSpecies:A. baumanniiBinomial nameAcinetobacter baumannii Bouvet and Grimont 1986
DIAGNOSIS The diagnosis of Acinetobacter infection is made by the growth of Acinetobacter from a patient specimen (eg, sputum, blood, cerebrospinal fluid) in the setting of other clinical findings that suggest an infection at that site.
Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a pan-resistant superbug causing fatal infections in vulnerable patients.
baumannii can survive for 6 days on dry filter paper (1), 13 days on formica (12, 19), more than 7 days on glass (16), and more than 25 days on cotton (16).
SONO Disinfecting wipes are EPA certified to kill Acinetobacter baumannii based on a minimum of 4 minutes of contact. The proper way to disinfect a surface is to get it wet and keep it moist using the SONO towelettes for at least 4 minutes.
Group II carbapenems (imipenem/cilastatin and meropenem) are the agents of choice for the treatment of severe infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. isolates susceptible to this antimicrobial group, but infection with carbapenem-resistant strains is increasingly encountered.
In general, strains were resistant to some of the antimicrobials most frequently used to treat Acinetobacter infections such as piperacillin-tazobactam (64.9% of strains resistant), ceftazidime (43.5%), ciprofloxacin (42.9%), as well as to colistin (41.7%) and polymyxin B (35.1%), the last-resort drugs to treat …
Summary. Acinetobacter infections remain difficult to treat. The prevalence of drug-resistant strains is increasing, and treatment options are increasingly limited. Effective therapy remains likely when the organism is proven to be susceptible.
CRE can cause a variety of illnesses, depending on where the bacteria spread. These may include blood infections, wound infections, urinary tract infections and pneumonia, according to the CDC.
CRE stands for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales. Enterobacterales are an order of bacteria commonly found in people’s gastrointestinal tract that can cause infections both in healthcare and community settings.
The term CRE refers to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Some CRE produce enzymes called carbapenemases that break apart carbapenems; these are referred to as carbapenemase-producing CRE (CP-CRE).
- Shortness of breath (from pneumonia)
- Pain with urination (from urinary tract infection)
- Pain and swelling of the skin (from skin infection)
- Belly pain (from liver or splenic infection)
- Stiff neck and reduced consciousness (from meningitis infection)
In addition, those Enterobacteriaceae that are documented to produce a carbapenemase are also considered CRE, regardless of carbapenem MIC. For Enterobacteriaceae species that have intrinsic imipenem resistance – such as Morganella morganii, Proteus spp.
Superbugs are strains of bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi that are resistant to most of the antibiotics and other medications commonly used to treat the infections they cause. A few examples of superbugs include resistant bacteria that can cause pneumonia, urinary tract infections and skin infections.
baumannii isolates were sensitive to carbapenems wherein 72.7% of the non-baumannii Acinetobacter isolates were sensitive to carbapenems. In concordance with this, Shareek et al. (17) reported 25% and 73% sensitivity of A. baumannii and non-baumannii Acinetobacter species to carbapenems, respectively.
Acinetobacter baumannii is a pleomorphic aerobic gram-negative bacillus (similar in appearance to Haemophilus influenzae on Gram stain) commonly isolated from the hospital environment and hospitalized patients. A baumannii is a water organism and preferentially colonizes aquatic environments.
Carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, or doripenem) and zwitterionic cephalosporins (cefepime or cefpirome) can be used to treat infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria susceptible to those antibiotics, including Acinetobacter species (9–11).