Extensively drug-resistant infections have been reported since 2018. The best sensitivity rate to Alcaligenes faecalis was 66.7% for three antibiotics (imipenem, meropenem, and ceftazidime) in 2019. Two antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/tazobactam) sensitivity rates to A. faecalis were less than 50%.

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What does Alcaligenes faecalis cause?

Alcaligenes faecalis is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium with flagella, and belong to the family of Alcaligenaceae. Particularly in immunosuppressed people, the opportunistic pathogen may trigger local infections, including peritonitis, meningitis, otitis media, appendicitis, and bloodstream infection.

How is Alcaligenes faecalis transmitted?

Alcaligenes faecalis is a gram-negative bacterium that is commonly found in the environment. This pathogen is usually transmitted in the form of droplets through ventilation equipment and nebulizers, but transmission through direct contact has also been documented in few case reports.

Does Alcaligenes faecalis grow on MacConkey Agar?

Can grow on MacConkey agar and Simmons’ citrate agar. Isolated from soil, water, feces, urine, blood, sputum,wounds, pleural fluid, nematodes, and insects. Subsp.

What does Alcaligenes cause?

Achromobacter and Alcaligenes Species. Achromobacter and Alcaligenes spp. are opportunistic human pathogens causing sporadic cases of pneumonia, septicemia, peritonitis, and urinary tract and other infections.

What disease is caused by Proteus vulgaris?

Proteus vulgaris Proteus vulgaris is an facultative anaerobe, rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium in the Enterobacteriaceae family. It causes urinary tract and wound infections.

Is Alcaligenes faecalis normal flora?

Alcaligenes faecalis is a gram-negative organism that is commonly found in the environment and may also be a part of normal fecal flora in humans.

Is Alcaligenes faecalis a pathogen?

It is commonly found in soil, water, and in hospital settings, such as in respirators, hemodialysis systems, and intravenous solutions [1, 2]. It is a potentially emerging pathogen and usually causes opportunistic infections in humans.

Where is Alcaligenes found?

Strains of Alcaligenes (such as A. faecalis) are found mostly in the intestinal tracts of vertebrates, decaying materials, dairy products, water, and soil; they can be isolated from human respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts and wounds in hospitalized patients with compromised immune systems.

Where is Alcaligenes faecalis found in nature?

Alcaligenes faecalis was first discovered in feces, and is commonly found in soil, water, and other environments (14,–16).

Where is Pseudomonas Alcaligenes found?

Alcaligenes are found in soil and water and are common inhabitants of the intestinal tracts of some animals.

Is Alcaligenes faecalis citrate positive or negative?

Alcaligenes faecalis is a Gram-negative catalase– and oxidase-positive, motile rod. It is commonly found in a watery environment and is rarely isolated from humans. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of the clinical A. faecalis isolates are presented.

What is the colony morphology of Alcaligenes faecalis?

Culture characteristics Colonies are whitish with a feathery, thin flared irregular edges. colonies appear non-pigmented and similar in size to Acinetobacter.

What color is Alcaligenes faecalis?

Enzyme Tests Text: Beta-galactosidase : -,Lecithinase / alpha : –
Temperature For Growth Text: at 37°C : Yes
Colony Appearance Text: smooth : Yes,shiny : Yes
Colony Color Text: white : Yes
Colony Text: convex : Yes,entire : Yes,irregular : Yes
Is Alcaligenes faecalis obligate Aerobe?

Alcaligenes faecalis is a Gram-negative, obligate aerobe, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive, and non-fermenting bacterium commonly found in soil, water, and hospital environments.

Is Alcaligenes a lactose fermenter?

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cepacia complex, Elizabethkingia spp., Chryseobacterium spp., Achromobacter spp., and Alcaligenes spp. are less-common non–lactose-fermenting bacteria that have emerged as important opportunistic pathogens.

Is Alcaligenes faecalis Halophile?

Alcaligenes=NOT a halophile.

Is Alcaligenes an Enterobacteriaceae?

Alcaligenes faecalisClass:BetaproteobacteriaOrder:BurkholderialesFamily:AlcaligenaceaeGenus:Alcaligenes

What are the symptoms of Proteus vulgaris?

They include dysuria, increased frequency, urgency, suprapubic pain, back pain, small volumes, concentrated appearance, and hematuria. If the patient is febrile, this could be a sign of bacteremia and impending sepsis. These symptoms may not be present if the patient has an indwelling catheter.

What are the symptoms of Proteus infection?

Proteus can cause gastroenteritis, urinary tract infections, and wound infections. The ingestion of food contaminated by Proteus may contribute to the sporadic and epidemic cases of gastroenteritis, which may cause symptoms such as vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, severe nausea, diarrhea, and dehydration.

How do you treat Proteus UTI?

Acute, uncomplicated pyelonephritis can be treated on an outpatient basis with fluoroquinolones, although a regimen of 7 to 14 days is recommended. An alternative to this treatment is a one-time dose of ceftriaxone or gentamycin followed by either TMP/SMZ, an oral fluoroquinolone, or cephalosporin for 7 to 14 days.

What does Alcaligenes faecalis smell like?

faecalis produces a distinctive sweet odor resembling that of green apples.

Is achromobacter an Enterobacteriaceae?

AchromobacterKingdom:BacteriaPhylum:ProteobacteriaClass:BetaproteobacteriaOrder:Burkholderiales

Does a faecalis ferment lactose?

faecalis can grow in the presence of bile salts. … faecalis can be cultivated on purple agar and ferments lactose under acid production (see Fig. 124:3).

What is Alcaligenes faecalis resistant to?

Alcaligenes faecalis is generally resistant to aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol and tetracyclines and usually susceptible to trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole and β-lactam antibiotics such as ureidopenicillins, ticarcillin–clavulanic acid, cephalosporins and carbapenems.

What pH does Alcaligenes faecalis grow best at?

It is also pH-dependent in vitro with an optimum between 5.8 and 7.

What is the size of Alcaligenes faecalis?

Alcaligenes faecalis occur in water and soil. The microbe has peritrichous flagellar arrangement which allows for motility (2). It is a gram-negative, rod-shaped organism observed at 0.5-1.0 μm x 0.5-2.6 μm in diameter.

Does alcaligenes Viscolactis have capsule?

Alcaligenes viscolactis may produce ropiness in milk with no detectable flavor change. This bacterium produces capsules in milk. … The use of EM in the evaluation of bacterial glycocalyces and biofilms is described in greater detail by T. A. Fassel and C. E. Edmiston.

Where is Proteus vulgaris found in the environment?

Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris are commensals of the normal flora of the human gastrointestinal tract, but they also can be found in water and soil.

What is the size of Escherichia coli?

Escherichia coli is a typical gram-negative rod bacterium. Its dimensions are those of a cylinder 1.0-2.0 micrometers long, with radius about 0.5 micrometers. Another gram-negative rod, less metabolically independent than E. coli, is Hemophilus influenzae, which has half the length and diameter.

Does Alcaligenes faecalis reduce nitrate?

Our studies revealed that A. faecalis could reduce nitrate and nitrite under aerobic conditions with electrodes as the electron donor, and the current densities were low (<0.02 mA/cm2).

What does a faecalis ferment?

Streptococcus faecalis ferments gluconic acid with the production of 0·5 mole carbon dioxide, 1·5 moles lactic acid and the rest a mixture of small amounts of acetic acid, formic acid and ethyl alcohol, In the presence of arsenite, 1·75 moles of lactic acid were produced with negligible amounts of the minor products ( …

How do you identify Pseudomonas?

They can both be distinguished from other pseudomonads by their negative oxidase reaction and production of non-diffusible yellow pigment. Primary culture for Pseudomonas species should be performed on blood agar and/or Pseudomonas selective agar.

Is Pseudomonas aeruginosa indole positive?

Pseudomonas gives negative Voges Proskauer, indole and methyl red tests, but a positive catalase test. While some species show a negative reaction in the oxidase test, most species, including P.

What does Pseudomonas putida do?

Pseudomonas putida is capable of converting styrene oil into the biodegradable plastic PHA. This may be of use in the effective recycling of polystyrene foam, otherwise thought to be not biodegradable.

Does Alcaligenes faecalis produce amylase?

Characterization of Alcaligenes faecalis GPA-1 producing thermostable extracellular α-amylase.

Does Alcaligenes faecalis hydrolyze gelatin?

Basic CharacteristicsProperties (Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis)Gelatin HydrolysisNegative (-ve)Gram StainingGram-negative (-ve)Growth in 7% NaClPositive (+ve)H2SNegative (-ve)

Is Alcaligenes faecalis a facultative anaerobe?

Obligate anaerobes, which absolutely require oxygen, will probably not be recoverable from our samples if they are there at all. … For standardization, two plates can be streaked with Alcaligenes faecalis (obligate aerobe) on one side, and any member of family Enterobacteriaceae on the other.

What is E coli morphology?

Traditionally, the colony morphology of Escherichia coli is identified as either a rough or a smooth form. The two forms are readily distinguished, as the colonies of the former are rough, flat, and irregular and colonies of the latter are smooth, high, and circular. E.

What is the morphology of Proteus vulgaris?

Proteus Vulgaris is a rod shaped Gram-Negative chemoheterotrophic bacterium. The size of the individual cells varies from 0.4 to 0.6 micrometers by 1.2 to 2.5 micrometers. P. vulgaris possesses peritrichous flagella, making it actively motile.