Which of the following is the optimal clinical specimen for the recovery of Legionella pneumophila?
The infection is spread from person to person, apparently through respiratory tract droplets that carry the bacteria directly to the next person’s eyes or nose. The droplets can fall onto hands and then get into eyes and noses.
Today, infections by A. haemolyticum are rare but most commonly cause pharyngitis in adolescents and young adults or skin and soft-tissue infections in immunocompromised populations.
haemolyticum was isolated from a diabetic patient with foot ulcers and the isolate was identified by using a VITEK-2 system, CAMP inhibition test, reverse CAMP test and a 23S rRNA gene sequence analysis.
Lemierre’s syndrome is a condition characterized by thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and bacteremia caused by primarily anaerobic organisms, following a recent oropharyngeal infection.
They are widely distributed in nature in the microbiota of animals (including the human microbiota) and are mostly innocuous. Some can cause disease in humans and other animals (for example, Arcanobacterium haemolyticum infections).
C haemolyticum (also called C novyi Type D) is a soilborne organism found in poorly-drained pastures with alkaline pH and, rarely, as spores in liver tissue, bloodstream, bone marrow, kidneys, and the GI tract of healthy cattle.
Thus, pharyngitis is a symptom, rather than a condition. It is usually caused by viral and/or bacterial infections, such as the common cold and flu (both viral infections) or by infection with the Streptococcus bacterium (strep throat). Pharyngitis can also occur with mononucleosis (aka “mono”), a viral infection.
A throat culture is a test to find germs (such as bacteria or a fungus) that can cause an infection. A sample of cells from the back of your throat is added to a substance that promotes the growth of germs. If no germs grow, the culture is negative. If germs that can cause infection grow, the culture is positive.
Trueperella bernardiae is a nonspore‐forming, nonmotile, facultative anaerobic, gram‐positive coccobacilli; it is catalase and oxidase negative and has variable hemolytic activity.
Fusobacterium is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-negative, non-sporeforming bacteria, similar to Bacteroides. Individual cells are slender, rod-shaped bacilli with pointed ends. Strains of Fusobacterium cause several human diseases, including periodontal diseases, Lemierre’s syndrome, and topical skin ulcers.
The CAMP test (Christie–Atkins–Munch-Peterson) is a test to identify group B β-hemolytic streptococci (Streptococcus agalactiae) based on their formation of a substance (CAMP factor) that enlarges the area of hemolysis formed by the β-hemolysin elaborated from Staphylococcus aureus.
The preferred diagnostic tests for Legionnaires’ disease are culture of lower respiratory secretions (e.g., sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage) on selective media and the Legionella urinary antigen test.
The only nonmotile Bacillus are B. anthracis and B. cereus subsp. mycoides.
Lemierre syndrome most often results from a complication of a bacterial throat infection, but it has also been reported to result from infections involving other areas of the head and neck, including the ears, salivary glands (parotitis), sinuses, and teeth.
Physicians should be aware of a rare but potentially lethal complication of oropharyngeal infections: Lemierre syndrome, which is characterized by superinfection with Fusobacterium necrophorum, jugular vein thrombosis, and septic pulmonary emboli. Its incidence has been estimated at 1 per million per year.
People who seek immediate medical attention for Lemierre’s syndrome have a high survival rate. Relief from symptoms may begin after several days of antibiotics. Full recovery can be expected in 3 to 6 weeks.
Blackleg is an infectious, non-contagious disease caused by Clostridium chauvoei. Infection occurs when animals ingest bacterial spores while grazing. The bacterial spores penetrate the intestine and are disseminated via the bloodstream to the skeletal muscle, where the spores remain dormant.
Bacillary hemoglobinuria (“red water”) is caused by toxins produced by Clostridium novyi type D. This clostridium was previously known as Clostridium haemolyticum. C. novyiis commonly found in soil and spores are ingested and passed from the feces and urine of cattle grazing in pastures with C.
Blackleg is disease of cattle and less frequently of sheep. It is caused by the soil-bourne bacteria Clostridial chauvei. The disease develops rapidly in affected animals and often deaths occur before the owner has noticed any sickness. Vaccination is the only means of protection against blackleg.
Left untreated, pharyngitis can, in rare cases, lead to rheumatic fever or sepsis (bacterial blood infection), which are life-threatening conditions.
Acute pharyngitis is a sore throat that appears and can last up to a month before fully resolved. It is usually the result of infection – viral, bacterial, or rarely fungal (candida yeast).
- Gargle with salt water—but steer clear of apple cider vinegar. …
- Drink extra-cold liquids. …
- Suck on an ice pop. …
- Fight dry air with a humidifier. …
- Skip acidic foods. …
- Swallow antacids. …
- Sip herbal teas.
In some cases, healthcare providers may use a throat culture in the diagnosis of thrush. 2 This procedure involves using a cotton swab to collect a sample from the back of your throat.
- Pain or a scratchy sensation in the throat.
- Pain that worsens with swallowing or talking.
- Difficulty swallowing.
- Sore, swollen glands in your neck or jaw.
- Swollen, red tonsils.
- White patches or pus on your tonsils.
- A hoarse or muffled voice.
Group A streptococci are bacteria commonly found in the throat and on the skin. People may carry GAS in the throat or on the skin and not become ill.
Trueperella pyogenes was first discovered as Bacillus pyogenes in the 1800s and has undergone various taxonomic revisions since then. It is a zoonotic organism that frequently infects cattle. Although its presentation is incredibly rare, when it does infect humans, it seems to have a propensity to cause endocarditis.
For example, fusobacterium can be responsible for periodontal disease, jugular vein suppurative thrombophlebitis, skin ulcers, intraabdominal abscesses, neck space infections, polymicrobial infections, and peritonsillar abscesses. Fusobacterium has also recently been associated with ulcerative colitis.
Fusobacteria colonize the mucous membranes of human beings and animals, and are generally regarded as commensals of the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.
Depending on the strain, it usually takes 2 to 7 days for fusobacteria to grow up on blood agar plates or in broth.
The CAMP (Christie, Atkinson, Munch, Peterson) test is used in some laboratories to verify whether bacteria have enhanced staphylococcus beta-lysis activity test, which has long been considered as a key, confirmed test for the identification of GBS [9,10,11,12].
Procedure of CAMP test Streak a beta-lysin–producing strain of aureus down the center of a sheep blood agar plate. The streptococcal streak should be 3 to 4 cm long. Streak test organisms across the plate perpendicular to the aureus streak within 2 mm. (Multiple organisms can be tested on a single plate).
A number of other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are known to react positively in the CAMP test, including Rhodococcus equi (9), Pasteurella haemolytica (8), Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria seeligeri (27), Aeromonas sp. (7), certain Vibrio spp. (18), and group G streptococci (34).