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ITP is a considered a treatable condition. Aggressive medical care is required, however, to help dogs with ITP and many require hospitalization. The immune response against the platelets must be controlled with immunosuppressive drugs. Anemia is often treated with blood transfusion therapy.
Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT) is a common condition in dogs and can be primary or secondary in nature. Diagnosis is made by evaluating clinical signs and performing a platelet count. Treatment usually includes aggressive immunosuppressive therapy, which can frequently be associated with multiple side effects.
Primary IMTP is usually treated with drugs to dampen down the immune system which has become overactive i.e. immunosuppressive therapy. Most often this means treatment with steroids over a period of several months, although sometimes additional immunosuppressive treatment may also be required.
Treatment of ITP and IMHA relies on suppressing the immune system’s attack against the red blood cells and platelets, respectively. The most commonly prescribed medication is a steroid called prednisone.
Treatment continues long after the patient appears to have recovered with the immune-suppressive agents tapered down slowly over several months. Recurrence occurs in approximately 30% of affected dogs and most commonly occurs after two to three months from diagnosis.
Unfortunately, despite appropriate treatment around 10 to 15% of dogs with ITP can die or are euthanised at the beginning of the disease or after recurrence of their signs. This is mainly observed with severe disease associated with complications like coagulation disorders or severe gastro-intestinal bleeding.
Clinical ehrlichiosis occurs because the immune system is not able to eliminate the organism. Dogs are likely to develop a host of problems: anemia, bleeding episodes, lameness, eye problems (including hemorrhage into the eyes or blindness), neurological problems, and swollen limbs.
People with mild thrombocytopenia might not need treatment. For people who do need treatment for thrombocytopenia, treatment depends on its cause and how severe it is. If your thrombocytopenia is caused by an underlying condition or a medication, addressing that cause might cure it.
Platelets bind together to clot broken or leaking blood vessels and prevent unnecessary blood loss, so a low platelet count compromises your dog’s ability to control bleeding, which can lead to bruising and excessive bleeding. Thrombocytopenia is the condition of low blood platelets in dogs.
Depending on the severity of your pet’s condition, hospitalization for fluids, supportive care, and transfusions may be necessary. Evan’s syndrome is treated with medications that attenuate or calm the immune system. Steroids are frequently used in addition to other immunomodulating drugs.
Mycophenolate is often used alongside corticosteroid drugs as the combination can be more effective, and may allow doses of each individual drug to be reduced. The effects of mycophenolate can take from 2 days to 2 weeks to be seen.
IMHA is a considered a treatable condition. Aggressive medical care is required, however, to help dogs with IMHA and most require hospitalization. The immune response against the red cells must be controlled with immunosuppressive drugs. Blood clot formation must be prevented with thromboprophylactic medications.
Treatment of Immune Mediated Disease Veterinarians use immunosuppressive medications to turn off the cells of the immune system. The first line therapy in immune mediated hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and polyarthritis is prednisolone/prednisone, which is a steroid medication.
Secondary ITP: The immune system destroys platelets because of underlying disease. Predisposing factors: drug administration, infection (especially tick-borne diseases), cancer, or other disorders.
Canine Ehrlichiosis is found worldwide. It is caused by several types of ticks: The Brown Dog Tick, Lone Star Tick, and American Dog Tick. Signs include fever, poor appetite, and low blood platelets (cells that help the clotting of blood), often noted by nose bleeding or other signs of bruising or anemia.
Normal dogs and cats should have platelet counts close to or >200,000/µL; normal horses and cows should have platelet counts of 100,000/µL or greater.
These symptoms will typically last for two to four weeks if left untreated. Many dogs then appear to get better on their own and enter what is called a subclinical phase of the disease, which can last for months to years.
The disease is characterised by fever, decreased appetite, lethargy and bleeding (such as nose bleeds). Some dogs develop severe and rapid weight loss, swollen limbs, difficulty in breathing and blindness. One of the most serious effects of this disease is on the bone marrow, which can be fatal.
Like any bacterial infection, ehrlichiosis is treated with antibiotics. Dogs with ehrlichiosis generally need treatment with the antibiotic doxycycline for at least four weeks, Anya says. Dogs experiencing significant bleeding or anemia with ehrlichiosis may require a blood transfusion in addition to antibiotics.
- Canned and frozen foods and leftovers. The nutritional value of food deteriorates with time.
- White flour, white rice and processed foods. …
- Hydrogenated, partially hydrogenated or trans-fats. …
- Sugar. …
- Dairy products. …
- Meat. …
- Alcoholic beverages. …
- Foods that can interfere with blood clotting.
ITP may be acute and resolve in less than 6 months, or chronic and last longer than 6 months. Treatment options include a variety of medications that can reduce the destruction of platelets or increase their production. In some cases, surgery to remove the spleen is necessary.
While there is no one cure for Evans syndrome, there are many methods that used to manage symptoms. For some individuals, treatment can lead to long periods of remission in which the signs and symptoms of Evans syndrome are more mild or disappear.
Autoimmune disease is rarely curable, but is often controllable with the appropriate medication.
- pale skin.
- dizziness or lightheadedness.
- shortness of breath.
- rapid heartbeat.
- yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
Common side effects of Mycophenolate in dogs include diarrhea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.
- stomach pain or swelling.
- difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep.
- pain, especially in the back, muscles, or joints.
Certain products may make it harder for your body to absorb mycophenolate if they are taken at the same time. Do not take this medication at the same time as antacids containing aluminum and/or magnesium, cholestyramine, colestipol, or calcium-free phosphate binders (such as aluminum products, lanthanum, sevelamer).
To start, you can feed your dog canned sardines along with their regular food, raw egg yolk (from organic or local eggs), green vegetables, and beef liver. Vitamin C can help your dog’s body absorb iron from the intestinal tract.
The prognosis with IMHA is variable, carrying a mortality rate of 30% to 70% within 1-2 months of diagnosis. If patients suffer IPT at the same time, or if the bone marrow is affected, the outlook may be worse. The condition can come back, and some animals need lifelong medication.
Major surgery to remove the spleen will cost around $1500. However, just one or two intravenous stem cell injections will cost $1000 – $2000, and will return the pet’s immune system to normal.
Consider a probiotic supplement. Remove as much stress and toxic substances from your pet’s environment and diet as possible. Consider added support for the liver such Animal Apawthecary’s Dandelion/Milk Thistle. Consider acupuncture or acupressure treatment to help relieve symptoms and regulate the immune system.
An immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) is any of a group of conditions or diseases that lack a definitive etiology, but which are characterized by common inflammatory pathways leading to inflammation, and which may result from, or be triggered by, a dysregulation of the normal immune response.
Immune-mediated diseases is a group of conditions that result from abnormal activity of the immune cells, overreacting or attacking to the body, displaying an extreme inflammatory response or loss of the ability to recognize and fight against tumor cells.