Introduction. In practice, parenteral products are often regarded as dosage forms that are implanted, injected or infused directly into vessels, tissues, tissue spaces or body compartments. Parenteral products are often used for drugs that cannot be given orally. … Ensure delivery of the drug to the target tissues.
- Can be used for drugs that are poorly absorbed, inactive or ineffective if given orally.
- The IV route provides immediate onset of action.
- The intramuscular and subcutaneous routes can be used to achieve slow or delayed onset of action.
- Patient concordance problems can be avoided.
The parenteral preparations should be free from all types of micro – organisms. An aseptic conditions are required to be maintained during the preparation of Parenteral products and its administration. The parenteral product must pass the test of Sterility. 3 Free from pyrogens.
Parenteral medications enter the body by injection through the tissue and circulatory system. Injection medications are absorbed more quickly and are used with patients who are nauseated, vomiting, restricted from taking oral fluids, or unable to swallow.
Parenteral packaging is a method that allows the medicine or other fluid to keep its potency and therapeutic effectiveness intact throughout the shelf life or till the time the drug is administered.
A large volume parenteral (LVP) is a unit dose container of greater than 100ml that is terminally sterilized by heat. Small volume parenteral (SVP) is a “catch-all” for all non-LVP parenterals products except biologicals.
- There is a wide choice of ingredients, and the dose can easily be achieved for patient administration.
- Powders have better physicochemical stability and longer shelf life compared to liquid dosage forms.
There are five commonly used routes of parenteral (route other than digestive tract) administration: subcutaneous (SC/SQ), intraperitoneal (IP), intravenous (IV), intrader- mal (ID), and intramuscular (IM). Not all techniques are appropriate for each species.
Disadvantages of parenteral preparations to the patient include lack of drug reversal, risk of infection and emboli, risk of hypersensitivity reactions, and cost.
To ensure patient safety, parenteral/injectable drug products must be sterilized to destroy any potential microbial contaminants (fungi, bacteria). … Exposure to radiation is another sterilization method used throughout the industry.
There are mainly seven quality control tests for parenterals are performed : Leaker test Pyrogen test Particulate test Sterility test Clarity test. Closure integrity test Weight variation test or content uniformity test.
(Entry 1 of 2) : situated or occurring outside the intestine parenteral drug administration by intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous injection especially : introduced otherwise than by way of the intestines enteric versus parenteral feeding. Other Words from parenteral. parenterally -rə-lē adverb.
- Subcutaneous (under the skin)
- Intramuscular (in a muscle)
- Intravenous (in a vein)
- Intrathecal (around the spinal cord)
Needle insertion angles for 4 types of parenteral administration of medication: intramuscular, subcutaneous, intravenous, and intradermal injection.
techniques of parenteral drug administration include IM, IN, transdermal, submucosal, subcutaneous (SC), IV, intraspinal, and intracapsular injections.
Small-volume parenteral solutions (SVPs) – a solution volume of 100 mL (as defined by USP) or less that is intended for intermittent intravenous administration (usually defined as an infusion time not lasting longer than 6-8 hours).
- Paperboard boxes. Paperboard is a paper-based material that is lightweight, yet strong. …
- Corrugated boxes. …
- Plastic boxes. …
- Rigid boxes. …
- Chipboard packaging. …
- Poly bags. …
- Foil sealed bags.
Parenteral preparations are sterile preparations containing one or more active ingredients intended for administration by injection, infusion or implantation into the body. They are packaged in either single-dose or multidose containers.
Parenteral preparations are defined as solutions, suspensions, emulsions for injection or infusion, powders for injection or infusion, gels for injection and implants. They are sterile preparations intended to be administrated directly into the systemic circulation in human or animal body.
The most common examples include sodium chloride solution, dextrose solution, Ringer’s solution, and lactated Ringer’s solution, as well as combinations of dextrose and sodium chloride.
Divided powders or charts are single doses of powdered medicinals individually wrapped in cellophane, metallic foil, or paper. The divided powder is a more accurate dosage form than bulk powder because the patient is not involved in measurement of the dose.
As synthetic drugs were introduced, powders were used to administer insoluble drugs such as calomel, bismuth salts, mercury, and chalk. The rapid development of formulations containing high potent compounds has reduced the use of powders as a dosage form. Most of the powders are replaced by tablets and capsules.
- Avoid first pass metabolism.
- Introduce drugs into the body.
- Does not cause nausea and vomiting due to gastric irritation in case of oral therapy.
- Used before surgery since oral therapy is restricted.
Parenteral Administration Parenteral routes of administration include the subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous routes.
Known as: Infusion, Parenteral, Infusions, Parenteral, Parenteral Infusions. The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours…
When we speak of parenteral transmission, we usually refer to methods of transmission that refer to breaks in the skin. In a clinical setting, this includes the following routes: Intravenous, an injection into the vein. Intramuscular, an injection into the muscle.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using the parenteral route of administration? They are absorbed more rapidly and completely than medications given orally. If the patient is unconscious the parenteral route may be the only available.
- Dehydration and electrolyte Imbalances.
- Thrombosis (blood clots)
- Hyperglycemia (high blood sugars)
- Hypoglycemia (low blood sugars)
- Liver Failure.
- Micronutrient deficiencies (vitamin and minerals)
Enteral nutrition is administered through a feeding tube placed into the stomach or intestines. Parenteral nutrition is administered through a traditional intravenous (IV) line or via a central IV surgically placed during an outpatient procedure.
Introduction. Parenteral preparations are defined as solutions, suspensions, emulsions for injection or infusion, powders for injection or infusion, gels for injection and implants. 1. They are sterile preparations intended to be administrated directly into the systemic circulation in humans or animals.
Parenteral products are unique from any other type of pharmaceutical dosage form for the following reasons: • All products must be sterile. All products must be free from pyrogenic (endotoxin) contamination. Injectable solutions must be free from visible particulate matter.
4) Particulate matter testing:– Particulate matter is primary concern in the parenteral products given by I.V. Route, all parenteral products should be free from insoluble particle.
Sterility test is applied to pharmaceutical preparations that are required to be sterile like parenteral & ophthalmic preparation. A sterility test is carried out to detect the presence of a viable form of microorganism in the all-injectable preparation of each lot.
DIRECT INOCULATION METHOD It involves a direct inoculation of required volume of a sample in two tests tube containing a culture medium that is FTM, SCDM. Volume of the preparation under examination is not more than 10% of the volume of the medium. Incubate the inoculated media for not less than 14 days.
Pyrogen test is performed to check the presence or absence of pyrogens in all aqueous parenterals. Rabbits are used to perform the test because their body temperature increases when pyrogen is introduced by the parenteral route.
Parenteral nutrition, often called total parenteral nutrition, is the medical term for infusing a specialized form of food through a vein (intravenously). The goal of the treatment is to correct or prevent malnutrition.
- Intravenous (IV) – an injection into a vein.
- Intraosseous infusion – an injection into the bone marrow (this is the fastest parenteral route)
- Subcutaneous (subQ) – an injection into the layer of tissue beneath the skin (such as insulin)