Introduction. Mycobacterium gordonae, belonging to the Runyon group II of scotochromogens mycobacteria, is an ubiquitous environmental non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) commonly found in water and soil.
|[Ref.: #11558]||Pathogenicity (human)||yes, in single cases|
|[Ref.: #11558]||Pathogenicity (animal)||yes, in single cases|
|[Ref.: #11558]||Biosafety level||1|
Description. Gram-positive, nonmotile and moderate to long acid-fast rods. Commonly found in tap water and soil.
It can be found in natural and processed water, sewage, and dirt. Healthy people usually do not get Mycobacterium fortuitum infections; however, they may occur after surgery, in people with an impaired immune system , or after exposure to a contaminated medical device (such as an endoscope).
kansasii is infrequently isolated from natural water sources or soil. The major reservoir appears to be tap water. Infection is likely acquired through the aerosol route, with low infectivity in regions of endemicity. Human-to-human transmission is thought not to occur.
The distinguishing feature of mycobacteria, the complex cell wall, is a well-recognized drug target. The cell wall is common to all bacteria, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, but can have vast differences in terms of the biochemical and structural features.
A biosafety level (BSL), or pathogen/protection level, is a set of biocontainment precautions required to isolate dangerous biological agents in an enclosed laboratory facility. The levels of containment range from the lowest biosafety level 1 (BSL-1) to the highest at level 4 (BSL-4).
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has the potential for providing rapid, accurate, and cost-effective identification of clinical isolates of mycobacteria. This technology has facilitated early and accurate identification of rare Mycobacterium species, including M. haemophilum, M.
Biosafety provides policies and practices to prevent the unintentional or accidental release of specific biological agents and toxins, whereas biosecurity provides policies and practices to prevent the intentional or negligent release of biological materials or the acquisition of knowledge, tools, or techniques that …
Surgical Care Removal of foreign bodies, such as breast implants and percutaneous catheters, is important and essential to achieving cure, as M fortuitum forms biofilm. Surgical debridement of cutaneous or subcutaneous lesions is often required to achieve cure.
Compared to M. tuberculosis they are weak pathogens, and infected patients are not considered contagious. Disease is probably acquired from environmental sources by direct entry of the organisms through traumatized skin or mucous membranes or by aspiration into previously abnormal lungs.
Surgical sites may become infected after the wound is exposed directly or indirectly to contaminated tap water. Other possible sources of mycobacterium fortuitum infection include implanted devices (such as catheters ), injection site abscesses, and contaminated endoscopes.
Mycobacterium kansasii occasionally involves the skin in a sporotrichoid pattern. Normally considered not to be contagious from person to person its natural sources of infection remain unclear. Tap water is believed to be the major reservoir associated with human disease.
First-line regimen: This consists of rifampin (10 mg/kg/day; maximum, 600 mg) plus ethambutol (15 mg/kg/day) plus isoniazid (5 mg/kg/day; maximum 300 mg) plus pyridoxine (50 mg/day), with the treatment duration continuing until sputum culture results are negative for 12 months.
M kansasii infection manifests late in the course of HIV disease. The lung is the organ most commonly involved. Commonly reported symptoms include fever, chills, night sweats, productive or nonproductive cough, weight loss, fatigue, dyspnea, and chest pain.
DNA probes have been widely used for species determination of the most commonly encountered mycobacteria. High-density oligonucleotide arrays (DNA microarrays) also have been applied to simultaneous species identification and detection of mutations that confer rifampin resistance in mycobacteria.
The mycobacterial cell envelope comprises four main layers: (i) the plasma membrane or inner membrane (IM), (ii) the peptidoglycan–arabinogalactan complex (AGP), (iii) an asymmetrical outer membrane (OM) or ‘mycomembrane’, that is covalently linked to AGP via the mycolic acids, and (iv) the outermost capsule  ( …
The shorthand for these two diseases of cattle is the same, but they completely different bacteria: Mycobacterium bovis and Mycoplasma bovis. Every bacteria has a specific name, so that we can identify them better – the “surname” (in this case Mycobacterium and Mycoplasma) and then a “first name” (bovis).
The four biosafety levels are BSL-1, BSL-2, BSL-3, and BSL-4, with BSL-4 being the highest (maximum) level of containment.
Containment level 1 (CL 1) is used for work with low risk biological agents and hazards, genetically modified organisms, animals and plants.
Containment level 2 (CL 2) is used for work with medium risk biological agents and hazards, genetically modified organisms, animals and plants.
- CT Scan. A CT scan uses X-rays and a computer to create three-dimensional, cross-sectional images of the body. …
- Sputum Culture. …
- Bronchoscopy. …
- Respiratory Exam. …
- Spirometry. …
- Exercise Testing. …
- Tissue Biopsy.
The Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) or the TB blood test can be used to test for M. tuberculosis infection. Additional tests are required to confirm TB disease. The Mantoux tuberculin skin test is performed by injecting a small amount of fluid called tuberculin into the skin in the lower part of the arm.
They are generally nonmotile bacteria, except for the species Mycobacterium marinum, which has been shown to be motile within macrophages. They are characteristically acid-fast. Mycobacteria have an outer membrane. They possess capsules, and most do not form endospores.
Hand washing after handling biologicals and potentially hazardous materials, after taking off gloves and before leaving the lab. Avoiding hand-to-face (or mouth) contact. No eating, drinking, smoking, or applying cosmetics in the lab. Disinfecting work surfaces daily and decontaminating after spills.
Laboratory biosafety practices are based on the principle of containment of biological agents to prevent exposure to laboratory workers and the outside environment. Primary containment protects the laboratory workers and the immediate laboratory environment from exposure to biological agents.
Biosafety is the discipline that addresses the safe handling and containment of infectious microorganisms and hazardous biological materials. This includes how we handle animals, plants, cell culture, bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites and public health crisis such as CoVID-19.
fortuitum are uncommon, but Mycobacterium fortuitum can cause local skin disease, osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone), joint infections and infections of the eye after trauma. Mycobacterium fortuitum has a worldwide distribution and can be found in natural and processed water, sewage, and dirt.
The document can also be obtained by calling the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791. (tuberculosis and leprosy). name does not imply that Mycobacterium are fungi; rather it describes the way that the tubercle bacillus grows on the surface of liquid media as mold-like pellicles (Gangadharam & Jenkins, 1998).
Frequency. M marinum infections are rare but well described in the literature. The estimated annual incidence is 0.27 cases per 100,000 adult patients. The infection is typically limited to the skin, mostly involving limbs, but spread to deeper structures has been reported.
The presence of either AFB or granulomas in a lung biopsy specimen or a transbronchial biopsy specimen, along with even a single positive culture result of sputum or bronchial wash (even in low numbers), is considered diagnostic. Perform a biopsy for localized or disseminated skin lesions.
How long before growth is obtained? Visible growth can occur in as few as 3 to 5 days with the rapid-growing mycobacteria. With M. tuberculosis, and some of the other slow-growing bacteria, it can take up to 4 weeks before growth is obtained.
A complete cure can be expected with some NTM strains but not with others. Reinfection is common. To avoid becoming infected again, you may need to make some lifestyle changes.