What is a resource in Azure? what is a resource group in azure.
What is a Resource Allocation Graph describe with a suitable example how IT can be used to detect deadlock?
Which of the following is true if the resource-allocation graph with multiple instances of resource contains a cycle?
Which of the following is incorrect regarding deadlock if a resource-allocation graph contains no cycle then no process in the system is deadlock?
The resource allocation graph is the pictorial representation of the state of a system. As its name suggests, the resource allocation graph is the complete information about all the processes which are holding some resources or waiting for some resources.
We use the resource allocation graph for the pictographic representation of the state of a system. The resource allocation graph contains all the information related to the processes that are holding some resources and also waiting for some more resources.
In a Resource Allocation Graph where all the resources are NOT single instance, If a cycle is being formed, then system may be in a deadlock state. Banker’s Algorithm is applied to confirm whether system is in a deadlock state or not. If no cycle is being formed, then system is not in a deadlock state.
and is currently waiting for that resource (request edge). … A directed edge from resource type to process is denoted by ; it signifies that an instance of resource type has been allocated to process. (assignment edge).
There are two main types of edges in the Resource Allocation Graph. Request Edge represents that a process is trying to request to get some resources. Assign Edge represents that a resource is allocated to the process and the process is enjoying the resource.
Resource allocation is the process by which a computing system aims to meet the hardware requirements of an application run by it. … This process may be undertaken by the hardware itself, an operating system, a distributed computing system, or as part of data center management.
The banker’s algorithm is a resource allocation and deadlock avoidance algorithm that tests for safety by simulating the allocation for predetermined maximum possible amounts of all resources, then makes an “s-state” check to test for possible activities, before deciding whether allocation should be allowed to continue …
|86.||If no cycle exists in the resource allocation graph :|
|b.||then the system will be in a safe state|
|c.||all of the mentioned|
|d.||none of the mentioned|
A deadlock exists in the system if and only if there is a cycle in the wait-for graph. In order to detect the deadlock, the system needs to maintain the wait-for graph and periodically system invokes an algorithm that searches for the cycle in the wait-for graph.
Deadlock detection: We have seen that a cycle in a resource-allocation graph may mean that there is a deadlock. … If a resource-allocation graph is expedient, a knot is a sufficient condition for deadlock.
If there is only one instance per resource type and resource allocation graph has a cycle then there is a deadlock. 3. If there is more than one instance for some resource type and resource allocation graph has a cycle , there may or may not be a deadlock.
- There are two vectors Wok and Finish of length m and n in a safety algorithm. …
- Check the availability status for each type of resources [i], such as: …
- Work = Work +Allocation(i) // to get new resource allocation. …
- If Finish[i] == true; it means that the system is safe for all processes.
Deadlock in operating system is a situation which occurs when a process or thread enters a waiting state because a resource requested is being held by another waiting process, which in turn is waiting for another resource held by another waiting process.
For example, channel allocation in wireless communication may be decided by a base transceiver station using an appropriate algorithm. One class of resource whereby applicants bid for the best resource(s) according to their balance of “money”, as in an online auction business model (see also auction theory).
Banker’s Algorithm is used majorly in the banking system to avoid deadlock. It helps you to identify whether a loan will be given or not. This algorithm is used to test for safely simulating the allocation for determining the maximum amount available for all resources.
The Banker’s Algorithm derives its name from the fact that this algorithm could be used in a banking system to ensure that the bank does not run out of resources, because the bank would never allocate its money in such a way that it can no longer satisfy the needs of all its customers.
2 Answers. (C) Deadlock Avoidance is solved by Banker’s Algorithm. Banker’s algorithm pretends to have allocated te required resources to the processes, and if the system doesn’t lead to deadlock, it actually allocates the resources.
If a process is requesting a resource, an arrow is drawn from the process node to the resource node. If there is a cycle in the Resource Allocation Graph and each resource in the cycle provides only one instance, then the processes will be in deadlock.
A wait-for graph in computer science is a directed graph used for deadlock detection in operating systems and relational database systems. … There is no simple algorithm for detecting the possibility of deadlock in the final case.
Conditions for Deadlock- Mutual Exclusion, Hold and Wait, No preemption, Circular wait. These 4 conditions must hold simultaneously for the occurrence of deadlock.
Circular wait: each process must be waiting for a resource which is being held by another process, which in turn is waiting for the first process to release the resource.
- Mutual Exclusion: …
- Hold and Wait: …
- No Preemption: …
- Circular Wait:
If there is a cycle in the graph and each resource has only one instance, then there is deadlock. In this case, a cycle is a necessary and sufficient condition for deadlock. If there is a cycle in the graph, and each resource has more than one instance, there may or may not be deadlock.
Theorem: In a general resource graph: a cycle is a necessary condition for deadlock. if the graph is expedient, a knot is a sufficient condition for a deadlock.
If the resource allocation graph contains a cycle then a deadlock may exist. If there is a cycle, and the cycle involves only resources which have a single instance, then a deadlock has occurred.
If a resource-allocation graph contains no cycles, then no process in the system is deadlocked. If the graph does contain a cycle, then a deadlock may exist. Both a and b are correct. Answer: (d).
Disadvantages of the Banker’s Algorithm It requires the number of processes to be fixed; no additional processes can start while it is executing. It requires that the number of resources remain fixed; no resource may go down for any reason without the possibility of deadlock occurring.
Whenever a process makes a request, the following algorithm is executed: Algorithm: Deadlock avoidance (Banker’s algorithm). … The process’s maximum claims are represented as a claim matrix C, where cij is the maximum claim of process pi for units of type rj.
- Processes request only 1 resource at a time.
- Request is granted only it results in a safe state.
- If request results in an unsafe state, the request is denied and the process continues to hold resources it has until such time as it’s request can be met.
In computer science, a thread of execution is the smallest sequence of programmed instructions that can be managed independently by a scheduler, which is typically a part of the operating system.
In terms of SQL Server, a deadlock occurs when two (or more) processes lock the separate resource. Under these circumstances, each process cannot continue and begins to wait for others to release the resource. … The killed process is called the deadlock victim.
Deadlock occurs when multiple threads need the same locks but obtain them in different order. If a thread, like Thread 3, needs several locks, it must take them in the decided order. It cannot take a lock later in the sequence until it has obtained the earlier locks.