What is a target cost per unit quizlet? how to calculate target cost.
Medical Definition of target cell : a cell that is acted on selectively by a specific agent (as a virus, drug, or hormone) the receptor that HIV binds to in entering its target cells— Michael Balter.
Codocytes, also known as target cells, are red blood cells that have the appearance of a shooting target with a bullseye.
The target cells of FSH are the Sertoli cells of the testes and the granulosa cells of the ovary.
Target cells are cells that are receptive to a secreted hormone. Target cell activation is. dependent on three factors; the hormone levels in the blood, the receptor levels on the target cell, and hormone–receptor affinity.
The killing of target cells is a complex process that involves the phenotypical and functional activation of NK cells, leading to the secretion of lytic granules containing perforin and granzymes at the immunological synapse (Krzewski & Coligan, 2012).
Numerous target cells are present in this patient with hemoglobin E and beta thalassemia trait. Target cells, or codocytes, have an excess of cell membrane relative to cell volume. Macrocytic target cells can be seen in liver disease, and microcytic target cells may be seen in thalassemia.
Artifact: Target cell formation occurs when blood smears are made when humidity is high. Hemoglobinopathies: There is a uneven distribution of hemoglobin within the cell, and an increased surface area to volume ratio. Note: Target cells have an increased surface area to volume ratio and decreased osmotic fragility.
A target organ is an organ in the body that is most affected by a specific chemical, drug, bacteria, or other substance. … Lungs, liver, kidney, heart, blood, or circulatory system, brain or central nervous system, and skin (yes, the skin is considered an organ.)
A fraction of erythrocytes appear as target cells in stained blood smears in sickle cell disease, due to a inheritance of the hemoglobin variant Hb S, polymerizing upon deoxygenation. These cells appear in a three dimension as thin cups.
Hormones target a limited number of cells or tissues based on the presence of a specific receptor as they circulate in the bloodstream. … These receptors can be present on a specific type of cell, a specific type of tissue or a specific type of organ.
Estrogens have multiple effects on the growth and development of cells in their target tissues, including the uterus, ovary, breast, bone marrow and brain. The hormone regulates the transcription of diverse genes in these tissues via the estrogen receptor, a nuclear transcription factor.
Hormones activate target cells by diffusing through the plasma membrane of the target cells (lipid-soluble hormones) to bind a receptor protein within the cytoplasm of the cell, or by binding a specific receptor protein in the cell membrane of the target cell (water-soluble proteins).
Discuss why the target-cell concept is essential for understanding hormone function. Target cells have receptors that hormones will bind to. Without those receptors the hormones will not have any effect on that part of the body.
Target cells may form more receptors in response to reduced exposure to a hormone (called “up-regulation”) or they may lose receptors in response to prolonged exposure (called “down-regulation”). … This combination is now an activated “hormone-receptor complex” which binds to the chromatin (on another receptor site).
- The levels of hormone in the blood.
- The relative number of hormone receptors on the target cell.
- The hormone–receptor affinity.
Cytotoxic T cells attack some tumor cells and transplanted tissue cells, as well as cells infected by microbes.
Cell-mediated lysis describes the killing of specific cellular targets by cells of the immune system. The effector cells are most often differentiated CD8+ T cells (that is, cytotoxic T lymphocytes or CTL) or natural killer cells (NK cells).
interleukin (IL), any of a group of naturally occurring proteins that mediate communication between cells. Interleukins regulate cell growth, differentiation, and motility. They are particularly important in stimulating immune responses, such as inflammation.
Alteration, dissolution, or destruction of red blood cells in such a manner that hemoglobin is liberated into the medium in which the cells are suspended. Synonym(s): erythrocytolysis, erythrolysis, hematolysis, haemolysis. [hemo- + G. lysis, destruction]
The target cell is a bell-shaped cell with a relative excess of membrane; in patients with obstructive liver disease a significant increase in the total membrane content of cholesterol leads to the increase in cell surface area.
Target cells also result when a normal cellular volume is enclosed in an overlarge surface. This occurs in normal persons after splenectomy where it may be due to an absence of some splenic effect on the maturation of the red cell surface.
Target tissue refers to the intended site that a hormone will affect such as muscle. Receptor site. Receptor sites are special sites located on every target tissue and only communicate with the specific hormone intended for the target tissue.
Target organ toxins are chemicals that can cause adverse effects or disease states manifested in specific organs of the body. Toxins do not affect all organs in the body to the same extent due to their different cell structures.
Indicates which bodily organs are most likely to be affected by exposure to a substance.
In sickle cell anemia, the abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to become rigid, sticky and misshapen. Both mother and father must pass the defective form of the gene for a child to be affected. If only one parent passes the sickle cell gene to the child, that child will have the sickle cell trait.
In up-regulation, the number of receptors increases in response to rising hormone levels, making the cell more sensitive to the hormone, allowing for more cellular activity. When the number of receptors decreases in response to rising hormone levels, called down-regulation, cellular activity is reduced.
How do hormones and target cells recognize one another? … hormone binds to its receptor.
n. 1. the cell in a sensory system that is responsible for stimulus transduction. Receptor cells are specialized to detect and respond to specific stimuli in the external or internal environment.
Endocrine gland/ source of hormoneHormoneTarget organ or tissueAdrenal cortexAldosteronePrimarily kidneysKidneysRenin (converted to Angiotensin-II)Blood vessel smooth muscle Adrenal cortexOvariesOestrogensReproductive organsProgesterone (from corpus luteum)Uterus
How do endocrine hormones reach their target cells? Hormones are transported through the blood stream to target cells. Ducts transport hormones directly to target cells. Hormones are released at synapses adjacent to target cells.
A hormone is distributed throughout the body by the blood. The target cells are the only cells which respond to it to do their functions.
Though they travel everywhere in the body, hormones only influence specific target cells. A hormone may have relatively few targets, affecting only a few kinds of cells. A different hormone may affect nearly every cell in the body.
Hormones can be thought of as chemical messages. From the blood stream, the hormones communicate with the body by heading towards their target cell to bring about a particular change or effect to that cell. The hormone can also create changes in the cells of surrounding tissues (paracrine effect).