What is the difference between Centralised and Decentralised Organisation?

**difference between centralization and decentralization with examples**.

### Contents

Measures of central tendency are mean, mode and median , whereas measures of dispersion are **variance, standard deviation and interquartile range** (it explains the extent to which distribution stretched or squeezed).

Central tendency is described by median, mode, and the means (there are different means- geometric and arithmetic). **Dispersion is the degree to which data is distributed around this central tendency**, and is represented by range, deviation, variance, standard deviation and standard error.

Distribution refers to the frequencies of different responses. Measures of central tendency give you the average for each response. Measures of **variability** show you the spread or dispersion of your dataset.

Simply put, it measures the degree of variability around the mean value. The measures of dispersion are important to determine the spread of data around a measure of location. For example, the **variance** is a standard measure of dispersion which specifies how the data is distributed about the mean.

The three common measures of central tendency of a distribution are the arithmetic mean, **the median and the mode**. … As distributions become more skewed the difference between these different measures of central tendency gets larger. The mode is the most commonly occurring value in a distribution, population or sample.

There are three main measures of central tendency: **the mode, the median and the mean**. Each of these measures describes a different indication of the typical or central value in the distribution.

Central tendency is defined as “**the statistical measure that identifies a single value as representative of an entire distribution**.”[2] It aims to provide an accurate description of the entire data. It is the single value that is most typical/representative of the collected data.

In statistics, dispersion (also called variability, scatter, or spread) is the **extent to which a distribution is stretched or squeezed**. Common examples of measures of statistical dispersion are the variance, standard deviation, and interquartile range.

Measures of central tendency tell us what is common or typical about our variable. Three measures of central tendency are **the mode, the median and the mean**. The mode is used almost exclusively with nominal-level data, as it is the only measure of central tendency available for such variables.

Measures of dispersion describe **the spread of the data**. They include the range, interquartile range, standard deviation and variance. Range and Interquartile Range. The range is given as the smallest and largest observations. This is the simplest measure of variability.

The four measures of central tendency are **mean, median, mode and the midrange**. Here, mid-range or mid-extreme of a set of statistical data values is the arithmetic mean of the maximum and minimum values in a data set.

**Range, interquartile range, and standard deviation** are the three commonly used measures of dispersion.

While measures of central tendency are used to estimate “normal” values of a dataset, measures of dispersion are **important for describing the spread of the data, or its variation around a central value**.

Basis for Comparison | Variance | Standard Deviation |
---|---|---|

What is it? | It is the average of squared deviations. | It is the root mean square deviation. |

What Is Dispersion? Dispersion is a statistical term **that describes the size of the distribution of values expected for a particular variable** and can be measured by several different statistics, such as range, variance, and standard deviation.

The best measurement for dispersion is **standard deviation**. Standard Deviation helps to make comparison between variability of two or more sets of data, testing the significance of random samples and in regression and correlation analysis.

The empirical relationship between the three measures of central tendency is **2 Mean = 3 Median – Mode**. An empirical relationship exists between mean mode and median. The relationship between the three central tendencies is given as; Mean – Mode = 3(Mean – Median) Mean – Mode = 3 Mean – 3 Median.

**Mean** is generally considered the best measure of central tendency and the most frequently used one. However, there are some situations where the other measures of central tendency are preferred. There are few extreme scores in the distribution. Some scores have undetermined values.

The most common measures of central tendency are **the arithmetic mean, the median, and the mode**. A middle tendency can be calculated for either a finite set of values or for a theoretical distribution, such as the normal distribution.

Another measure of central tendency is **the median**, which is defined as the middle value when the numbers are arranged in increasing or decreasing order. … For example, if we had four values—4, 10, 12, and 26—the median would be the average of the two middle values, 10 and 12; in this case, 11 is the median.

- The mode is the most frequent value.
- The median is the middle number in an ordered data set.
- The mean is the sum of all values divided by the total number of values.

We’ve covered the measures of **central** tendency: mean, median, mode, and range. There’s actually a way to measure how ‘spread out’ numbers are: it’s called the standard deviation (also represented by σ) of a data set. …

Examples. The most familiar example of dispersion is probably **a rainbow**, in which dispersion causes the spatial separation of a white light into components of different wavelengths (different colors).

Variability (also called spread or dispersion) refers **to how spread out a set of data is**. Variability gives you a way to describe how much data sets vary and allows you to use statistics to compare your data to other sets of data. The four main ways to describe variability in a data set are: range.

While a measure of central tendency describes the typical value, measures of variability define **how far away the data points tend to fall from the center**. … A low dispersion indicates that the data points tend to be clustered tightly around the center. High dispersion signifies that they tend to fall further away.

Outliers Measures of central tendency and dispersion can give **misleading impressions** of a data set if the set contains one or more outliers. An outlier is a value that is much greater than or much less than most of the other values in a data set. 11. … Identify the outlier in the data set.

On one hand, a measure of central tendency indicates the center of the data distribution; which is the value around which all the data points gather. … On the other hand, a measure of dispersion indicates **how ‘dispersed’** the data points are around the central value.

A measure of central tendency (measure of center) is a value that attempts to describe a set of data by identifying the central position of the data set (as representative of a “typical” value in the set). We are familiar with measures of central tendency called the **mean, median and mode**.

2 **Mean**. The most frequently used measure of central tendency is the mean.

**Standard deviation** is a measure of dispersion, not measure of central tendency. This option is the correct answer.

**Standard deviation** is not a measure of central tendency.

A measure of central tendency is a **single value that attempts to describe a set of data by identifying the central position within that set of data**. … The mean (often called the average) is most likely the measure of central tendency that you are most familiar with, but there are others, such as the median and the mode.

Standard deviation is the best measures of dispersion, **because it posseses most of the characterstics of an ideal measure of dispersion**. … Also, Standard Deviation helps in testing the significance of random samples and in regression and correlation analysis. 2. It is based on the values of all the observations.

The distance between the minimum and the maximum is called the range. The larger the value of the range, the more dispersed the cases are on the **variable**; the smaller the value of the range, the less dispersed (the more concentrated) the cases are on the variable.

A measure of spread also called a measure of dispersion, is used to **describe the variability in a sample or population**. Measures of Dispersion are used to estimate “normal” values of a dataset, measures of dispersion are important for describing the spread of the data, or its variation around a central value.