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A basilar skull fracture is a break of a bone in the base of the skull. Symptoms may include bruising behind the ears, bruising around the eyes, or blood behind the ear drum.
The most common levels for a herniated disc are L4-5 and L5-S1. The onset of symptoms is characterized by a sharp, burning, stabbing pain radiating down the posterior or lateral aspect of the leg, to below the knee. Pain is generally superficial and localized, and is often associated with numbness or tingling.
Some longterm effects following brain abscess resolution include seizures, loss of mental acuity, and focal neurological deficits that are likely attributed to the loss of neurons during infection.
Seizures which occur more than a week after a traumatic brain injury are considered late seizures. Most often when this happens, it is because there has been more serious injury to brain cells and the chemical environment around the cells has also changed.
Hinge fractures are defined as crushing injuries, such as compression of the head between the ground and a heavy object (ie, a car tire). 1,17,18. Transverse hinge fractures extend across the dorsum sellae of the skull, and can separate it into two.
An unpaired bone located in the cranium (or skull), the sphenoid bone, also known as the “wasp bone,” is located in the middle and toward the front of the skull, just in front of the occipital bone.
A herniated disc (also called bulged, slipped or ruptured) is a fragment of the disc nucleus that is pushed out of the annulus, into the spinal canal through a tear or rupture in the annulus. Discs that become herniated usually are in an early stage of degeneration.
For example, if you have a bulging disc between the 2nd and 3rd lumbar vertebra (L2-L3), and it pinches the L2 nerve root, you may experience back pain with aching, burning or shooting pain, numbness and tingling in the thigh, sometimes going down into the lower leg or foot.
The L5-S1 disc is between the 5th lumbar and 1st sacral bones. These two discs do the most work and are the most frequently injured.
Meningitis is defined by the presence of the inflammation of the meninges, with characteristic changes in cerebrospinal fluid. Brain abscess is a focal infection of the brain parenchyma, commonly caused by bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens.
A brain abscess is usually caused by infection with either bacteria or fungi. If the immune system is unable to kill an infection, it will try to limit its spread by using healthy tissue to form an abscess, to stop the pus infecting other tissue.
What causes a cerebral abscess? A cerebral abscess usually occurs when bacteria or fungi make their way into your brain, either through your bloodstream or from an infected area in your head, such as your ears or sinuses. An injury to your head or head surgery can also let in germs that can cause an abscess.
It causes seizures, which are bursts of electricity in the brain. There are four main types of epilepsy: focal, generalized, combination focal and generalized, and unknown. A person’s seizure type determines what kind of epilepsy they have. Different types of seizures affect the brain in different ways.
The most common type of seizure is the complex partial seizure. This is a seizure that begins in one part of the brain and then spreads to other regions of the brain.
- Generalized onset seizures:
- Focal onset seizures:
- Unknown onset seizures:
A Jefferson fracture is a bone fracture of the vertebra C1. The vertebra C1 is a bony ring, with two wedge-shaped lateral masses, connected by relatively thin anterior and posterior arches and a transverse ligament. The lateral mass on vertebra C1, who is taller, is directed laterally.
Undertaker’s fracture is an artifact related to poor handling of the corpse characterized by subluxation of the lower cervical spine from tearing of the intervertebral disc at C6-C7 vertebral level. It occurs due to sudden fall of the head over occipital region.
A linear skull fracture is a break in a cranial bone resembling a thin line, without splintering, depression, or distortion of bone.
The sphenoid bone is an unpaired bone of the neurocranium. It is situated in the middle of the skull towards the front, in front of the basilar part of the occipital bone. The sphenoid bone is one of the seven bones that articulate to form the orbit.
On the base of the sphenoid bone, several muscles attach to it’s legs, the medial and lateral pterygoid processes. As the name suggests, the pterygoid muscles, important for chewing and mastication, attach here.
Borders. The sphenoid bone has a common border with the frontal bone (via the sphenofrontal suture), the parietal bone (via the the sphenoparietal suture), the squamous part of the temporal bone (via the sphenosquamosal suture) and the occipital bone (via the spheno-occipital suture).
“A bulging disc is like letting air out of a car tire. The disc sags and looks like it is bulging outward. With a herniated disc, the outer covering of the disc has a hole or tear. This causes the nucleus pulposus (jelly-like center of the disc) to leak into the spinal canal.”
A severe case of a bulging disc can cut off nerve impulses, even causing permanent nerve damage. Additionally, you may experience sharp paints, incontinence, bowel movement irregularity, or even partial paralysis as the issue worsens.
The L4 and L5 are the two lowest vertebrae of the lumbar spine. Together with the intervertebral disc, joints, nerves, and soft tissues, the L4-L5 spinal motion segment provides a variety of functions, including supporting the upper body and allowing trunk motion in multiple directions.
The L3-L4 spinal motion segment, positioned in the middle of the lumbar spine, plays an important role in supporting the weight of the torso and protecting the cauda equina (nerves that descend from the spinal cord).
L2, L3, and L4 spinal nerves provide sensation to the front part of the thigh and inner side of the lower leg. These nerves also control movements of the hip and knee muscles.
The T12 vertebra sits right above the lumbar spinal column. It is the largest and most inferior of the thoracic spinal vertebrae. The T12 vertebrae location is between the T11 vertebra and the first lumbar vertebra, L1, in the trunk region.
A severe herniated disc can be considered a disability and make you eligible for Social Security disability benefits if it meets the requirements in the Social Security Administration’s Blue Book. The Blue Book is the official listing of all of the conditions that qualify a person to receive disability benefits.
Pain, generally felt as a sharp, shooting, and/or searing feeling in the buttock, thigh, leg, foot, and/or toes. Numbness in the foot and/or toes. Weakness in the leg and/or foot muscles and an inability to lift the foot off the floor (foot drop)
This pain is due to the herniated disc compressing the roots that make up the sciatic nerve, which then sends pain signals through the entire nerve, which extends from the lower back through the leg.
The most frequent microbial pathogens isolated from brain abscesses are Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. Among this class of bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Viridian streptococci are the commonest.
The typical appearance of a brain abscess at conventional MR imaging is that of a ring-enhancing lesion, with high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low or intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images. A mature abscess has a low-signal-intensity capsule on T2-weighted images (1).
Acute CNS infections fall broadly into three categories—meningitis, encephalitis, and abscesses—and generally result from blood-borne spread of the respective microorganisms.
1 There are multiple reports of invasive rhino-orbital–cerebral mucormycosis in a patient with COVID-19. 2 However, the formation of fungal brain abscess following COVID-19 without contiguous sinonasal and orbital diseases is uncommon.
Between 1,500 and 2,500 cases occur each year in the United States. Brain abscesses are most likely to affect adult men aged under 30 years. Among children, they most commonly develop in those aged 4–7 years. Newborns are also at risk.
- differences in mental processes, such as increased confusion, decreased responsiveness, and irritability.
- decreased speech.
- decreased sensation.
- decreased movement due to loss of muscle function.
- changes in vision.
- changes in personality or behavior.
Scalp abscess is an infrequent and usually benign complication of the implantation of fetal heart rate electrodes that becomes noticeable from 2 to 10 days after birth. The lesions are usually single and localized.
Left untreated, a brain abscess may lead to neurological damage, and ultimately death. The overall mortality rate from a brain abscess is 10 percent, but if the abscess ruptures into the ventricle (the fluid chambers in the brain), the mortality rate goes up to as much as 25 to 40 percent.
Infection can spread to the brain (meningitis Meningitis read more ) and spinal cord, or blood clots can form and spread from the veins around the eye to involve a large vein at the base of the brain (the cavernous sinus) and result in a serious disorder called cavernous sinus thrombosis.
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a type of epilepsy. Patients with LGS experience many different types of seizures including: Tonic – stiffening of the body. Atonic – temporary loss of muscle tone and consciousness, causing the patient to fall.